An article from the Daily National Intelligencer that discusses the views of the Monroe Doctrine that have come from newspaper articles in Paris and London. 


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"The Monroe Doctrine in Europe"

An article from The New York Herald on the United States, European powers, and the Central American affairs that were playing out between them during 1858. 


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“It Struck A Big Snag”

An article from 1895 out of The Commerical Appeal, which discussed the varying national opinions about the Venezuelan conflict. 


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"The Monroe Doctrine in Europe"

New York Times article disscussing the different viewpoints that European countries had on the Monroe Doctrine and its use in Venezeula.


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"English press sides with Spain"

Chicago Tribune article that shows the opinions of Spain and England on the Monroe Doctrine in Cuba. 


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"Aguinaldo on the Monroe Doctrine"

Chicago Tribune article that states Filipino revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo"s opinion of the Monroe Doctrine and an independent Philippines.


"Magnified Security"

1908 political cartoon that depicts the United State"s pride and self made right to conquest. 


Summary:

By 1853, news sources in France, Great Britain, and other parts of Europe were buzzing with discussion of the Monroe Doctrine. Paris newspapers were stating that the Monroe Doctrine was no longer like it was when original proposed and it seemed to be a new policy was forming under the original doctrine. Papers coming out of London were making statements such as, “We must protest against the monstrous assumption that no European Power has the right to interfere in the politics of American States, or to establish colonies in American waste lands.” They expressed strong distaste in the Americans trying to control lands and regions in which had not yet been claimed or taken possession of by any other nation yet. Great Britain at the time expressed that they felt the Monroe Doctrine was, “honest and endurable, as Monroe conceived it” and that the American fear of European monarchs surrounding the Western Hemisphere by colonies “meant to act aggressively against republican institutions” was logical. However, Great Britain felt that danger and fear should be over now and that those who still adopt the doctrine now use it as justification for, “their dreams indefinite never-ending annexation.”


 

"Give it another twist, Grover - we"re all with you!"

Political cartoon displaying the relations in foreign policy between the United States and Great Britain during 1896.


In 1858, the European powers of Great Britain and France took issue with the United States intervening in countries in Central America. Eight years after the negotiation of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty to ensure the, “guarantee both the independence of the Central American territory and the neutrality of all the interoceanic passages which might be constructed on that territory” the allied powers of Britain and France felt that the United States was not upholding this, and instead was falling back on the Monroe Doctrine for their over intervention on Central American countries. England at the time said that they could, “not tolerate any longer, pretentions which threaten the maritime liberty and the independence of nations.” France upheld their alliance with England and wanted to also make the, “justice and the rights of nations prevail.”


"They can"t fight"

Displaying Uncle Sam and John Bull, this political cartoon shows the dispute over the Venezuela boundary. 


Since 1814 Venezuela has had a border dispute with Great Britain when the Brits took over the colony of Guyana from the Netherlands. As the years progressed, the British border extended in Venezuela and the disputes between the two countries continued to grow. The United States ignored this conflict in South America until 1895 when the Venezuelan Crisis was in full swing. In the end, Britain accepted the intervention by the United States to force arbitration and the right of the United States to intervene in the matter under the provisions of the Monroe Doctrine. Though, many Europeans from all over the continent had their own views on this matter and the implications used through the Monroe Doctrine during 1895. Germany at the time “refrain from an expression of opinion” and did not join Great Britain in their attempt to combine European diplomatic action in this application of the United State’s Monroe Doctrine. Canada expressed their loyalty to Great Britain, and also stated they wanted to continue peace with the United States as well. However, the Canadians said that if war were to ensue it would back Britain. Both the countries of France and Russia took stances against the United States for the soul purpose of them “despis the Monroe Doctrine.” The people of Venezuela were ready to go to war immediately to defend their country and were grateful of United States intervention. Lastly, a Britain newspaper said, “the United States are thoroughly convinced of the justice of the Monroe Doctrine as a whole, although there may be differences of opinion as its applicability to the boundary dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain.” However, the goal of avoiding conflict was on the top of Britain’s list during the time—even with the great distaste of the United States intervention through the Monroe Doctrine. 


"Defining the docrtine"

Political cartoon that displays Uncle Sam protecting Venuzuela from foreign powers under the Monroe Doctrine, but is unhappy that Venezuela will not pay off its debts.


Although the Venezuelan Crisis was averted in the 1890’s, another crisis would rise in Venezuela in 1902. Many Europeans that did business in Venezuela were hurt by the countries revolution for independence. These Europeans lost insurmountable amounts of money and complained to their governments to do something about their financial burdens. Italy, Germany, and England called for reparations from Venezuela but the newly founded country did not want to pay. The three European powers set up a naval blockade and demanded money. England called on the United States to force Venezuela to pay the reparations, citing the Monroe Doctrine as the Americans duty to compel nations under its protection to “observe their duties in regard to others”. These European nations thought it was unfair that the Americans were protecting small countries that were refusing to pay for their actions and revolutions. But the Americans claimed that the English misinterpreted the Monroe Doctrine, the Americans were not enforcers of other countries international obligations, which would encroach on the new countries independence. The U.S. eventually agreed to be an arbitrator between the nations as a means to avoid increasing conflict. Venezuela was made to pay thirty percent of what the European nations wanted thanks to the protection by the United States under the Monroe Doctrine.


While the Venezuelan conflict was going on in Central America, another conflict was starting to rise closer to the United States. In the mid 1890’s, news of brutal Spanish rule in Cuba began to surface. The United States invoked the Monroe Doctrine to intervene, saying it was protecting its interests in Cuba and that the Cuban people were fighting for their independence from the Spaniards. This action caused Spain to become furious with the United States; Spain denied the claims that the Cuban people wanted their independence stating that the people who were revolting were attacking the helpless and burning plantations down. The English press backed Spain saying the United States was using the Monroe Doctrine to stir up trouble. Also, the English press criticized the U.S. for citing a revolt as a reason to intervene in Cuba because the United States had fought the Civil War to suppress the revolting South. But this criticism would not stop the United States from challenging the Spanish in Cuba, causing the Spanish-American War of 1898.


"Smashed!"

Political cartoon that displays the tension between the Philippines and the United States at the turn of the 20th century.


Following the Spanish-American war in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. The Philippines had been fighting for their independence from Spain for years and hoped that America would grant them this right. Aguinaldo, the leader of the independence movement in the Philippines, referenced the Monroe Doctrine as a crucial document for the fight of independence. The Filipino people witnessed the United States protect countries in the Americas that were in search for their independence and were hopeful that the same would happen to them. Aguinaldo interpreted the Monroe Doctrine as a document that stated that the Americas were for Americans and by the same token believed the Philippines should be for the Filipino people. But the United States did not think this way, they believed the Filipino people needed the United States because they could not govern themselves. The difference in opinions led to the ensuing Philippine-American War that would last years and take thousands of lives on both sides.